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The binary vectors contain Cas9 (nuclease or nickase) and the gRNA. Cas9 is codon optimized for high expression in monocots and dicots

Cas9 nuclease vector for single and multiple target sequences

RNA is driven by the U6 promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana (for dicots) or Oryza sativa (for monocots).

Cas9 nickase vector

Insertion of the target RNA in the Cas9 nickase vector can be easily done as DNA fragment containing both target RNAs at the ends. The inserted DNA fragment contains the U6 promoter.

Cas9 nuclease vector for single and multiple target sequences

Genes used in plant molecular biology sometimes have low expression in plants due to the fact that they have been originally isolated from bacteria which use a different codon usage.
The beta­glucuronidase (GUS) gene from E. coli was codon optimized for better expression in monocots and dicots.

To prevent expression from bacteria the StLS1 intron was introduced. The synthetic GUS gene is regulated by the Ubi promoter from maize and introduced into maize embryos by particle gun bombardment. For comparison the GUS gene from Jefferson et al. (EMBO J. 87 Dec) was used, which is 100% identical in amino acid sequence and in the sourrounding of the genes.

2600Cloning of 1 target site into a Cas9 vector350
2601Cloning of a second target site into a Cas9 vector300
2602Cloning of a third target site into a Cas9 vector275
2610Cloning of 1 double target site into a Cas9 vector400
2611Cloning of 2 double target sites into a Cas9 vector350
2612Cloning of 4 double target sites into a Cas9 vector325
2613Cloning of 8 double target sites into a Cas9 vector300
2700Cloning of 1 fourfold target sites into a Cas9 vector1.200
2800Cloning of 1 sixfold target sites into a Cas9 vector2.000

Expression Optimization

Introduction of optimized Kozak sequences with different strengths for targeted enhancement of protein expression, with high, medium and low expression variants available for specific cloning targets.

Codon Usage

Optimized codon usage for monocots, dicots, and other plants is a key strategy in genetic engineering, enhancing the expression and functionality of transgenes by aligning codon usage with the host organism's natural preferences.

Full Documentation

In the section vectors you will get some information about the vectors we have already constructed. All the vectors, including the binaries, are sequenced. The list of vectors will grow continuously.


If the sequence of the vector and the DNA fragment is known, you will get the sequence and a map of the construct with the primers used for construction and the most important features. Cloning can be done in any vector you want.
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